NEBOSH IGC Question and Answers PART 8

NEBOSH IGC Question and Answers PART 7 Cont..

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141) A company produces a range of solid and liquid wastes, both hazardous & non-hazardous. Outline the arrangements that should be in place to ensure the safe storage of wastes prior to their collection and disposal.

The completion of risk assessments that address the nature, properties and quantities of the waste likely to be stored.
Minimizing the quantities stored by organizing regular collections.
Ensuring separation of incompatible wastes.
Providing appropriate means for containing the wastes in secure storage facilities (e.g. protected against unauthorized persons, weather, vehicles etc.).
Installing & maintaining fire protection and fire fighting systems in case of flammable or combustible wastes.
Installing bunds and drawing up procedures to deal with spillages that might present environmental risks.
Providing safe means of transport and access to the storage site.
Ensuring that wastes are accurately identified and that warning signs are in place where appropriate.
Training employees in the precaution to be taken.
Ensuring that they are provided with appropriate gloves, overall, eye protection, PPE.

142) A) In relation to the noise at work rehulations 1989, State in dB(A), the first & second action levels.

1st action level:- For noise as 85 dB(A).

2nd action level:- For noise as 90 dB(A).

 B) Outline the requirement placed on an employer when employees are likely to be exposed to the second action level or above.
The completion of a noise assessment by a competent person.
Keeping a record of assessment & reviewing it if it is no longer valid or after significant changes have taken place.
Reducing exposure to noise by means other than hearing protection (e.g. by the installation of sound proofing enclosures and silencers.
The provision and maintenance of hearing protection to reduce exposure to below the second action level in case where engineering control is not reasonably practicable.
Setting up and marking ear protection zones and enforcing the wearing of hearing protection their in.
Providing information & training to employees ‘IT IS.

143) Outline the measures that may be needed to reduce the risk of slip & trip accidents in a large supermarket.

Workplace design and layout issues (such as displays and warehouse storage arrangements).
The provision of non-slip flooring.
A procedure for the identification & repair of floor defects such as holes & bumps.
The provision of an adequate standard of lighting in all areas.
Highlighting changes of level.
Provision of handrails on stairs.
The use procedures for re-stocking to minimize the need to block aisles, cable and flexible hose management.
The wearing of suitable footwear by employees.

144) A) Describe the possible effects of electricity on the body.

The cardio-respiratory effects, in particular the risk of fatal injury due to disruption to heart rhythm.
Muscular contraction following contact with AC current resulting in an involuntary grip on the live conductor, thus prolonging current flow through the body.
Tissue burns with the main sites of damage being the entry & exit points but with the additional possibility of damage to internal organs.
B) Outline the emergency action to take if a person suffers a severe electric shock.
Isolation of the victim from the supply.
Summoning help.
Administering first aid such as cardiovascular resuscitation.
Treatment of burn & other injuries.
Remaining with the causality until medical help arrives.

145) A computer user has complained of neck and back pain; Outline the features associated with the workstation that might have contributed towards this condition.

Poor workstation layout (such as the screen at an incorrect height or poorly positioned causing repeated head movements).
The chair at an incorrect height or the seat back incorrectly adjusted.
Lack of or poorly positioned document holder.
Glare or reflections on the screen that force the computer user to adopt an awkward posture to avoid them.
Exposure to draughts.
Poor general or local lighting.
Inappropriate storage of materials and the poor sitting of ancillary equipment (e.g. printer) also existed.

146) Outline the control measures that could be used to minimize the health risks from the use of organic solvents in the workplace.

Isolating or enclosing the process where the solvents are used.
Reducing the exposure time of employees.
Using suitable anti spill and labeled containers and means of transference; (e.g. pumping rather than pouring).
The use of barrier creams and after work skincare products.
Providing and maintaining PPE i.e. eye protection, gloves & respiratory protection equipment).
Prohibiting food, drink and smoking where contamination might exist.
Ensure that employees are given appropriate information & training.
Ensuring high level of personal hygiene.
Provision of local exhaust ventilation.

147) A) In relation to machine safety, outline the principles of operation of,

Interlock guards: one that is linked to the machine controls by mechanical, electrical, hydraulic or pneumatic means so that the machine will not operate until the guard is closed, and when the machine is in a dangerous condition, the guard is either prevented from opening or, if it is opened, the dangerous parts of the machine are made safe.
Trip Devices: Trip devices operates when a person approaches a danger area. (e.g. trip bars or probes, pressure mats or photoelectric system (light curtains). Once the device is triggered it trips the machine, which either stop or otherwise become safe).

B) Other than contact with dangerous parts, Identify FOUR types of danger against which fixed guards on machine may provide protection.
Noise emission.
By containing hazardous substances such as oil mist or dust, by providing shielding against heat or electricity.
Preventing ejection of material (e.g. particles or broken mechanical parts) from the machine.

148) Outline the particular hazards that may be present during the demolition of a building.

Falls from the height.
Falling debris and premature collapse.
Use of debris.
Contact with the noise from the equipment & heavy plant.
Dust (possibly asbestos).
Hot work from metal cutting operation.
The presence of hazardous materials from previous uses of the building.
The presence cellars or vaults affecting the stability of adjoining premises.
The possible presence of services such as electricity, gas & water.


 149) A) Explain the meaning of the term ‘dangerous occurrence’ and give two specific examples of dangerous occurrences that require notification under the reporting of injuries, disease and Dangerous Occurrence Regulations (RIDDOR) 1995.

Dangerous Occurrence:- is a specified event that has not resulted in a reportable injury but had the potential to do so. e.g. schedule 2 to RIDDOR -1995

Collapse of the scaffolding.
Collapse, overturning or failure of a load bearing part of equipment such as lift, hoist, crane, cradle or forklift truck.
Escape of significant quantity of flammable gas.

B) Identify the reasons why employees may fail to report accidents at work.
The employee being unaware of the reporting procedure or no procedure in place.
An unwillingness to give up time or a lack of perception of the importance of accident reporting (perhaps due to lack of training).
The possibility of retribution and the fear of being disciplined.
An actual or perceived lack of management response when accidents are reported.
To preserve the individual’s, the department or the organizations safety record (particularly if this part of a bonus or incentive scheme).
An aversion to first aid or medical treatment.
A dislike of or inability to fill in forms.
Pear pressure from fellow employees, possibly as part of a general safety culture problem.

C) Outline the key points that should be covered in a training session for employees on the reporting of accidents & incidents.
The classification of accidents (e.g. major, minor, first aid, near miss etc).
The reason for reporting (e.g. to meet legal obligations, to enable an investigation to be carried out that might help to prevent the occurrence of similar incidents. To meet insurance requirements, to review risk assessments. And to compile statistics in order to identify trends).
Internal Procedure: e.g. the accidents & incidents that need to be reported, the method of reporting, including such issues as the person to report to, examples of report forms, location of the incident books etc. How to complete report form, and the name of the person responsible for notifying the enforcing authority.
Follow up action: e.g. the use that the organization might make of the reports. Stressing a no blame culture, and possibly of an external investigation by an enforcement agency or an insurance company.

150) Outline the factors that might cause the safety culture within an organization to decline.

Lack of effective communication.
Perception of growing blame culture.
Lack of leadership & commitment at senior staff.
Lack of monitoring or a failure to implement remedial action.
Lack of consultation & employee involvement.
Generally poor working environment.
A high staff turnover leading to lack of continuity and loss of momentum in making safety improvements.
External influences such as a down turn in the economy.
Leading to job security with the possibility of H & S being seen as less of a priority.

151) With reference to Management of Health & Safety at Work Regulation 1999,

A) Outline the information that an employer must provide to his employees.
MHSWR-1999 Reg 10

The risk identified by risk assessment ( and those notified to him by other employees sharing the same workplace).
The preventive & protective measures that are in place.
The organizations emergency arrangements.
The identity of competent persons nominated to implement the emergency procedures.

B) Identify four classes of persons, other than his own employees, to whom an employer must provide health & Safety information.
Other employer’s employees, & self employed workers working on the premises.
Employer of those other employees and any employer sharing the same workplace.
Temporary staff.
Parents of staff child employees or those on work experience.
Any employment business supplying the employer with temporary staff or contract labour.

152) Explain the meaning, status roles of,

Health & safety Regulations:- Regulations contain requirements that lay down minimum legal standards. “Breaches of regulations constitute criminal offences that can lead to enforcement action, with the possibility of prosecution and the imposition of fines”.

Health and safety regulations are made under the H & S at work Act by the secretary of state after consultation with HSC and that they often implement EC Directives that are aimed at protecting employees & others.

HSC Approved Code of Practice:- ACOP’s are approved by the HSC with the consent of the secretary of state and that their purpose is to provide practical implementation of legal requirements in specific areas.

HSC Guidance:- HSC audience has no formal legal standing, HSC Guidance is generally more informative and practical than an ACOP, and is intended to give advice on good practice.

153) Outline the factors that will determine the level of supervision that anew employee should receive during their initial period of employment within an organization.

The age of employee.
His experience of work in general.
Task to be performed in particular.
The nature & complexity of task & its inherent risks.
The person’s skills and qualifications for the work.
His attitude & aptitude.
The system of work and any specific safety requirements applying to the task.
Employee’s communication skills and any special needs he may have.

154) A) Identify two main functions of first aid treatment.

The preservation of life and / or the minimization of the consequences of serious injury until medical arrive.
The treatment of minor injuries that do not need medical attention.

B) Outline the factors to consider when making an assessment of first aid provision in a workplace.
Size of the organization.
The number of employees.
The layout of the workplace.
The identified hazard & risks.
The history of minor & other incidents (and typical need of first aid treatment).
The distance from the workplace to the nearest emergency medical services.
The working patterns and practices such as shift working and persons working away from the workplace.
Trained first aider in special procedure.

155) Outline the reasons why an organization should monitor and review its health and Safety Performance.

To identify substandard health & safety practices and conditions. (Workplace inspection).
To identify trends in relation to different types of incident. (Incident Analysis data).
To compare actual performance with previously set targets. (Bench marking).
To identify whether control measures are in use and to assess their effectiveness.
To be able to make decisions on appropriate remedial measures for any deficiencies identified.
To set priorities and establish realistic timescales.
To assess compliance with legal requirements.
To provide the information to board of directors and safety committee.
Legal requirement under MHSWR-1999.

156) A) Explain using an example, the meaning of the term ‘risk’.

RISK – “Probability / or likelihood of occurrence & severity of its consequences”.

e.g. Electricity – shock, Noise- noise induced hearing loss.

B)Outline the key stages of a general risk assessment.

Define the task.
Identify the hazards associated with the task & clauses of persons at the risk of harm.
Evaluate the risks arising from the hazards.
Assess the effectiveness of existing controls to decide whether additional measures are required to eliminate or control the risks.
Findings of the assessment need to be recorded & communicated.
Set the timescale for its review & revision.

157) The number of absences due to upper limb disorders in an organization appears to be increasing. Outline the possible sources of information that could be consulted when investigating this problem.

Risk assessment.
Results of task analysis & the identification of repetitive actions.
The organization’s employees and safety representatives.
Ill health reports and the analysis of absence records.
The observations of supervisors and the complaints that may have been made to them by members of their teams.
Manufacturers information.
HSC Guidance.
Eargonomist & occupational health practitioner.
Social activities co-coordinator & tennis, squash etc.

158) A) State the legal requirements where by employees must prepare a written statement of their health and safety policy.

HSWA- 1974 section-2 to

Prepare a health & safety policy and also to the exemption from the requirement for the policy to be in writing for those employing more than five employees.

B) Outline the various methods of communicating the contents of a health & safety policy to workplace.
Giving employees their own personal copy of the policy or a summary of it.
Displaying the policy on notice boards.
Explaining the contents of the policy at a team briefings or tool box talks and during induction or refresher training courses.
Referring the policy in internal newsletters booklets, emails & internal communications.
Making the policy an agenda items at meetings of the health & safety committee.

159) Outline the benefits of undertaking regular fire drills in the workplace.

Satisfying a legal requirement or one specified in a fire certificate.
To provide instruction to employees on the actions to be taken in emergency situations.
Checking that the alarm can be heard in all parts of the premises.
Testing the effectiveness of the evacuations procedures, both generally and in relation to specific requirements (such as the need to ensure the safety disabled employees and visitors).
Familiarizing employees (particularly those new to the undertaking) with the alarms, evacuation procedures, escape routes & assembly points so that, in the case of a real emergency, they would know the actions to take.
Providing an opportunity for fire wardens and others with specific functions to practice their designate roles.


160) A) With reference to electricity at work regulation 1989, explain the meaning of the term ‘Competent Person’.

“Competent Person means, the person having thorough knowledge, experience and skill of the subject”.

B) Draw up a checklist for the safe use of hand held portable electrical tools.

Environmental considerations i.e. wet, flammable.
Reduced voltage.
Isolation & protection methods such as earthing & residual current devices.
Identifying the testing.
Examination & maintenance.

NEBOSH IGC Question and Answers PART 9

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