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NEBOSH IGC Question and Answers PART 7

NEBOSH IGC Question and Answers PART 6  Cont....


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121) General Risk Assessment – Key Stages –Outline

Define the task & identify both the hazards associated with the task & the clauses of persons at risk of harm.
Evaluate the risk arising from the hazards ( to assess the effectiveness of existing precautions and to decide whether additional measures are required to eliminate or control the risks.
Records of the findings.
Time scale- set for their review & revision.

122) Induction Training (new employees) Main H & S issues –Outline.

Health & Safety Policy of organization.
Emergency procedures.
Hazards specific to work place,
Need to comply with H & S requirements, H & S responsibilities & line of communication.
Accidents & first aid arrangements.
Welfare provision.
Health & surveillance.
Consultation procedure.

123) Safe system of work –Explain

‘Integration of people, equipment, material & the environment to produce an acceptable level of safety. (Procedure, hazards, control, equipment, PPE & Training).

 124) Developing safe system of work. Sources- outline.

Approved code of practices.
Manufacturer’s information.
Standards- British, European, international & Industry.
Contacts- enforcement agencies & professional bodies.
In house standards.
Result of risk assessment & JSA.
Accident, Health surveillance data.

125) Contractors – Assessment of H & S competence –list factors.

Previous experience.
HSE Policy.
H & S Responsibility.
Accident enforcement & history.
Membership with accreditation body & ISO Certification.
Statutory examination of equipment.
Methods of statements – Procedure.

126) Forklift driver – Injured

Cornering too fast.
Hitting obstructions.
Driving on uneven ground / across slope.
Moving with the load elevated, unstable or excessive.
Colliding with another vehicle.
Condition of work equipment & workplace.
Ineffective brakes.
Tire in poor condition, inflated & mechanical failure.
Human factor issues.


Underlying factors – Describe.
A poor or complete lack of risk assessment.
Poor selection of vehicle.
Inadequate driver training.
A failure to develop safe system of work.
Poor employee selection procedure.
A lack of supervision.
A poor maintenance procedure.
Failure to introduce a system for reporting defects.
General lack of commitment to H & S on the part of management.


127) Propaganda Posters – Advantage Outline

Vehicles for passing on H & S message to workforce.

Relatively low cost.
Use in reinforcing verbal instructions or information.
Potential to involve employees in their selection or design. (Employee involvement).
Humor can sometimes be used effectively to convey a serious message.
Disadvantage:

Need to change posters on regular basis if they are to be noticed.
They may become soiled.
Defaced and out of date.
They might trivialize serious matters or present language barriers.
Over reliance on posters to convey H & S information.
They may be perceived by unscrupulous employees as an easy, if not particularly effective; way of discharge their H & S duties 7 of shifting the responsibility into the workforce for any accidents that may occur.


128) H & S Inspector. May serve –Explain.

i) An Improvement Notice:
There is a breach of relevant statutory provisions, or that there has been a breach that is likely to be continued or repeated.

e.g. Floor that has been poorly maintained in contravention of the requirements of the workplace (HSWR-1992).

ii) A Prohibition Notice:
An inspector must be of the opinion that there is, or is likely to be, a risk of serious personal injury.

E.g. Scaffold that has been poorly constructed and is therefore in an unsafe condition.

iii) Enforcement Notice, Effect : State

Improvement Notice: to suspend the notice until the appeal is held.

Prohibition Notice: Continuous in force until the appeal is heard.


129) Young persons at a greater risk of accidents at work. (factors that may place – Identify.

Lack of knowledge, experience or training.
2) Individual’s physical development.

3) Tendency of young persons to take risks and to respond to peer group pressure.


130) Minimize the risks to young persons. Measures –Outline.

Competition of risk assessments with young persons specifically in mind.
The provision of Induction program’s.
Careful supervision or monitoring by an experienced & responsible fellow worker.
Specific health surveillance.
Clear line of communication.
Restrictions on the type of work & the number of hours worked.


131) Civil law & Criminal law – Difference –Outline.

One to provide a remedy and the other to punish.
Courts involved Civil magistrates courts civil the county courts etc.
The burden of the proof required ( a balance of probabilities as opposed to beyond all reasonable doubts).
The parties generally involved the state and an individual and the different court structures involved.
Difference in the sources of law, with criminal law generally written down in, statutes and with civil liabilities largely defined in common law by judicial precedent.

132) H & S Committee – Establish by employer. (Circumstances – State)

An employer must establish a H & S committee when requested to do so in writing by two or more trade union appointed safety representative within 3 months.
H & S Committee –Ineffective (6 –reasons)- Give
Lack of management commitment.
No agenda or remit and / or no minutes or notes of the meetings being produced.
An uneven balance between management & employee representative.
Poor chairmanship.
No access to the decision making process.
Infrequent meetings.
In appropriate topics.
No access to H & S expertise.


133) Reference to RIDDOR

A) State the legal requirement.
Notify the enforcing authority by the quickest practicable means.
Written report regarding death formally within 10 days by an approved means
The responsible person under the regulations has the duty to submit the report and that delayed deaths, up to 1 year after the original accident have to be reported whether or not they have been previously reported under another category.
B) Work related injuries (other than fatal injuries) – 3 categories – Reportable.
Injured person being away from the work; or unable to do normal work for > 3 consecutive days.
Injuries to non-employees who are taken to hospital for treatment etc.


134) H & S Regulations & ACOP (Outline with example).

H & S Regulations:

Generally made under the H & SWA -1974 by secretary of state.
Contain statutory requirements which, if not the imposition of a fine or to the issue of an enforcement notice by the appropriated met by the person on whom they are laid.
May lead to prosecution in the courts & enforcement authority.
ACOP:

Approved by the H & S Commission with the consent of the secretary of state.
They provide a practical interpretation of legal requirements in specific areas.
They do not themselves impose any legal requirements they may be produced in the court as supportive evidence.


135)     A) Ergonomics – Define

‘The study of the interaction between workers & the work environment’ OR ‘Making the job or task fit to the person”.

B) Inspection of a machine operation which is not ergonomically designed (Observation List).
The need for excessive force or repetitive movements by the operator.
2) The need for the operator to stretch or stoop.

3) Machine control sited in awkward positions.

4) Controls and displays unmarked or poorly marked and their function not obvious.

5) Luck of visibility of the task by the operator.

6) The work piece difficult to position because of its size/ weight / type of protection provided.

7) Difficulty experience in changing, adjusting or cleaning the machine tools.

 136) State shape & colours with example.

Prohibition Signs: White background within a red circle and with a diagonal red line. E.g. “No Smoking”.
Warning Sign: Yellow background within a black triangle. E.g. Flammable material, radiation & electricity.
Mandatory sign: Round signs with blue background used to designate compulsory use. E.g. Hearing / head protection / fire door close.
Emergency exit or first aid: Rectangular or square with a green background. E.g. Emergency escape sign (Running Man).

137) Monitoring of H & S performance (* measures – Identify.)

Rates of incidents, injuries & work related ill-health.
Action taken by enforcement authorities.
The number of Civil claims.
The result of inspections & environmental monitoring.
Safety audits outcomes.
The degree of compliance with procedures ( PPE usage).
of staff trained in H & S.
Result of medical and / or health surveillance.

CONTROLLING WORKPLACE HAZARD

138) A) with reference to methods of heat transfer explain how fire in workplace may spread.

Conduction: Heat can be transferred through metal beam or other parts of a structure by conduction.
Convection: Heat can be carried by rising air currents (convection) to cause a build-up of hot gases under ceiling.
Radiation: Heat can be transferred through the air by radiation causing heating of a material at a distance from fire.
Direct burning: Combustible material in direct contact with flames can itself catch fire.


B) Outline the measures that should be taken to minimize the risk of fire from electrical equipment.
Ensuring suitability of the chosen equipment for the task. (Std CE Marking, Intrinsic flameproof equipment).
Circuit overloads prevention. (Avoid multi way adopter in single socket).
The use of correctly rated fuses & thermal cut-outs.
Isolating equipment when not in use.
Ensuring that vents remain uncovered.
Uncoiling cables & extension leads.
Pre-use inspection of equipment for visible damage plugs, connectors to cables.
Program of ‘IT IS’ by competent person.

Explain why water should not be used on fires involving electrical equipment & identify two suitable extinguishing agents that could be used in such circumstances.
Water is a good conductor of electricity, it leads to electric shock.

Dry chemical powder fire extinguisher.
Carbon dioxide fire extinguisher.

139) Outline the issues to consider when considering Manual handling assessment of task that involves lifting bucket of water out of a sink.

Main elements: Task, Individual, Load, & Environment.

Frequency of activity.
Vertical & horizontal distances to be lifted / transported.
Distance of the load from the body.
Awkward body movements & soon.
Environmental factors- wet floor, space constraints & ambient temperature.
Load- weight, the type / size of the bucket & water temperature.
Individual – should be considered in terms of age, gender, stature & physical capability.


140) A) Outline the possible causes of a dumper truck overturn on a construction site.

Overloading or uneven loading of the bucket.
Cornering at excessive speed.
Hitting obstructions.
Driving to close to the edge of embankments or excavations.
Mechanical defects.
Inappropriate tire pressures and driving across slopes.

NEBOSH IGC Question and Answers PART 8 Cont...

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