NEBOSH IGC Question and Answers PART 6

NEBOSH IGC Question and Answers PART 5 Cont.....
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101) Outline the main features of,

A health & Safety inspections of a workplace,
Safety Inspection: Involves the straight forward observation of a workplace and/or the activities or equipment within it. Generally safety inspection, usually carried out by a manager or employees representative and often aided by the use of the checklist, may be carried out routinely and has the aim of identifying hazards and assessing the use and effectiveness of control measures ( Area to be covered -4p’s –Plant, people, procedures, plant & equipment).

A Health & Safety Audit:
Audit is a thorough, critical examination of an organization’s safety management systems & procedures. Audit is normally a lengthy process carried out by a trained auditor, often someone from outside the organization. It is a structured way of assessing the health & safety performance of a organization by supplying answers to a serious preset questions, and often involves a scoring system such that improvements can be measured.

102) An employer is claiming compensation for injuries received during an accident involving a forklift trucks.

Identifying the documented information that the employer might draw together when preparing a possible defense against the claim.

Accident book record.
RIDDOR form (if applicable).
Accident investigation report, including statements made by witness or supervisors in terms of demonstrating compliance with statutory & common law duties.
Relevant documents might include:
The organization’s H&S Policy.
Risk Assessment.
Written safe systems of work relating to the activity.
Training records.
Statutory examination records ( as required by LOLER).
Maintenance records (PUWER & LOLER).
Inspection reports.
Health & safety Committee Minutes.
Documents relating to previous accidents & corrective actions taken.
Information relating to the claimant (e.g. involvement in previous accidents disciplinary records etc.

103) With reference to the (health & safety consultation with employees) Regulations 1996:

Identify the particular health & safety matters on which employees must consult their employees.
1) The introduction of measures affecting the health & safety of employees.

2) The arrangements for the appointing or nominating competent persons under regulations 7 & 8 of the MHSWR- 1999.

3) Health & Safety information required by law to be provided to employees.

4) The planning and organizing of any health & Safety training that has to be provided.

5) Consequences of the introduction of new technology.

Outline the entitlements of representatives of employees safety who have been elected under the regulations.
Provision of reasonable facilities and assistance.
Provision of training (with coverage of associated costs).
Being given time off with pay during working hours to undertake training and to carryout the stated functions.
Provision of information necessary to carryout the functions ( including specifically access to records kept under the requirements of the Reporting of Injuries, Diseases & Dangerous Occurrences Regulations 1995).

104) Outline reasons for maintaining good standards of health & safety within an organization.

Moral: Need to provide a reasonable standard of care and to reduce the injuries, pain and suffering caused to employees by accidents & ill health.
Legal: concerned with the desire to avoid enforcement action and civil claims.
Economic: Economic benefits include, a more motivated workforce resulting in increased production rates. The avoidance of direct costs associated with accidents (e.g. down time, administrative, investigation and first aid costs, repair of plants & equipment, employing & training replacement staff, etc.) possibly cheaper insurance premiums. The avoidance of costs associated with legal action and maintaining the image and reputation of the organization with its various stack holders.

105) A) The meaning of the term ‘Permit to Work’.

‘A formal documented procedure to control hazards in high risk activities’.

B) Outline the specific details that should be included in a permit to work for entry into a confined space.
1) A description of the plant involved with reference to the task to be completed and forcible hazards and risks.

2) The precautions to be taken (e.g. isolating services, atmosphere purging 7 the removal of contaminants, pre-entry and ongoing atmospheric testing, means of communication, use of respiratory and PPE etc.).

3) Emergency arrangements & equipment to be provided (e.g. safety lines, supporting staff, resuscitation and other first aid equipment, welfare facilities etc).

4) Duration of the permit & signatures for authorization and receipt and for hand back & cancellation.

106) A controller has been engaged to undertake building maintenance work in a busy warehouse. Outline the issues that should be covered in an induction program for the contractor’s employees.

The particular risks in the working area ( e.g movement of forklift trucks, falling materials, conveyers & the possible presence of asbestos).
General site safety rules regarding smoking, clothing & PPE.
Use of electrical equipment and so on.
Requirements for permit to work and other control.
Exclusion zones & traffic routes.
Arrangements for the storage of materials.
Accident reporting & other emerging procedures (e.g. action required in case of fire).
viii) The location & use of welfare facilities including first-aid.

 107) A) Outline Three work activities that may present a particular risk to pregnant women.

Manual handling or physically strenuous work.
Task involving long periods of standing or sitting.
Work involving exposure to the biological agents or chemical substances that might affect unborn child.
Work in hyperbaric environment (e.g. those above normal atmospheric pressure).
Tasks involving exposure to ionizing radiation.
Unusually stressful work including exposure to high levels of noise and hot environment.
Jobs that expose peoples to an increased risks of injury ( e.g. due to slipping or violent assault). Have particular implications for pregnant women.
Activity of radiographers exposed to X rays (standing). (swelling of feet-edema, varicose veins, dizziness & fainting).
Sitting for long time – thrombosis, embolism).

B) Outline the actions that an employer may take when a risk to a new or expectant mother cannot be avoided.
(Reg -16 of MHSWR-1999).

Changing the employees working conditions (e.g. finding other suitable work or introducing additional breaks) or
Changing the hours of work, if not,
The employer would need to consider suspending the employee from work on full pay for as long as is necessary.

108) List the powers given to H & S enforcement officers appointed under the HSWA-1974.

Powers of Inspector’s , Section 20 – HSWA -1974 with Section 21, 22, 25, 39.

The right to enter premises, if necessary by enlisting the assistance of a police officers.
Carryout examinations & investigations.
The direct that premises or equipment be left undisturbed for the purpose of investigations.
To take measurements & photographs.
To inspect and / or take copies of documents and records.
To take samples.
To require a person to answer questions and signs a declaration to the truth of his/her answers.
To take possessions of articles and substances (and to seize and render them harmless in situations of imminent danger).
To issue enforcement notices.

109) Human Error- Workplace (Reducing ways)

Use of skilled, trained & competent staff including pre-employment screening issues.
Motivation of workforce.
Task variety to prevent monotony.
Frequent breaks.
Addressing environment issues-heat, light & noise.
Mechanization & automation.
Ensuring controls on machinery are clearly marked.
Implementation of drugs & alcohol policy.
Providing competent supervision of employees.

110) Hazard underestimation – reasons

1) Overfamilarity & complacency.

2) Lack of instructions.

3) Information of training.

4) Lack of experience.

5) Some hazards may be invisible.

6) Sensory impairment.

7) Involvement in routine.

8) Repetitive task that may lead to lack of attention.

111) Motivation – Ways Outline

1) The Overt recognition of good health & safety performance. ( Praise / offering financial incentives).

2) Disciplining employees.

3) Involvement of employees: a) Risk assessment b) safe system of work.

4) Improving companies H & S culture & demonstrating a high level of management commitment.

5) Ensuring a good working environment.

6) Providing training.

7) Ensuring good communication.

112) Pregnant employees (Factors affecting –Outline).

1) Exposure to chemical e.g. pesticides, lead that causes intra cellular changes (mutagens) or affect the embryo (teratogens).

2) Biological exposures e.g. Hepatitis.

3) Physical agents exposures e.g. Ionizing radiations, extra temperature issues.

4) Ergonomic issues – manual handling, prolonged standing, adoption of awkward body, movements –stress.

5) PPE issues.

113) Smoking policy – Benefits –Explain.

1) Reduction in the risk of fire.

2) Improvement in general cleanliness.

3) Reduction in smoking exposure to non-smoking staff (irritant effect) long term health damage.

4) Promotion of health.

5) Avoidance of conflict between smokers & non-smokers.

114) No smoking policy – Ways outline

1) Policy should be clear in its intents & communicated to all staff ( notice boards, leaflets & forms of propaganda)

2) Consultation with employees to encourage ownership.

3) Setting an example by management people.

4) Providing help to employees in the form of counseling.

5) Provision of designated smoking area.

6) Use of disciplinary procedure.

7) Providing smoke free environment.

 115) Monitoring & reviews of safety performance by Management – Why reasons Outline.

To identify substandard health & safety practical & conditions (workplace inspection).
To identify trends in relation to different types of incidents (analysis of incident data).
Benchmark- by comparing data with similar industries, to identify measures are in use & to assess their effectiveness.
To be able to make decisions on appropriate remedial measures for any deficiencies identified.
To set priorities & establish realistic timescale.
To assess compliance with legal requirements MHSWR-1999.
To provide information to board of director & safety committee.

116) Reporting of fatality to enforce authority, state legal requirements.

‘Notify the enforcement authority by the quickest practicable means then to report the death within 10 days by an approved means – F 2508.

117) Work related injuries- reportable outline

Major injury
Fracture of bone.
24 hrs. Hospitalization.
Injured person away from work. ( > 3 day consecutive).
Injury to non-employees taken to hospital for treatment.

118) First aid arrangements – factors outline.

1) No. of trained first aid personnel.

2) First aid facilities – size of organization.

3) Distribution & composition of workforce.

4) The types of hazard & level of risk present.

5) The proximity to emergency services.

6) The special need of traveling.

7) Remote or lone workers.

8) Arrangement for other shifts, sickness leave & other absence.

119) Civil Law & Criminal law , Difference outline.

One to provide a remedy & other to punish.
A burden of proof required. ( a balance of probabilities as opposed to beyond all reasonable doubts.
The practices generally involved ( two individual rather than state & individual).
Different court structure.

120) Risk – Explain (example)

‘Probability / Likelihood of an occurrence & the severity of its consequences.

NEBOSH IGC Question and Answers PART 7 Cont.....

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