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NEBOSH IGC Question and Answers PART 5

NEBOSH IGC Question and Answers PART 4  Cont..
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81) Outline four ways in which employers could motivate their workforce.

Increased job satisfaction through empowerment.
Involvement in decision making.
A personal sense of achievement ‘team spirit’.
Negative consequences e.g. fear of not acting in a particular way i.e. fear of disciplinary consequences these are normally less effective.

82)Explain the meaning of term ‘ergonomics’.

‘The study of interaction between workers and work environment.
OR ‘Making a job fit to the person.
OR ‘Designing a task to suit the individual in terms of physical/mental capabilities and the individuals expectations.

83) Outline the main factor to be considered in an ergonomic assessment of a work station to be used by an operator of a visual display unit (VDU).

Equipment design: e.g. (height and position of keyboard and screen, sitting posture, design of chair, screen definition and colour, adjustability of equipment, etc).
Environmental factors: e.g. glare, temperature, humidity, workplace, noise etc.
Intermediate breaks.

84) Define the term ergonomics.

The study of interaction between workers and work environment. OR making job fit to the person. OR designing a task to the suit the individuals in terms of physical/ mental capabilities and individual expectations.

85) Outline the possible effects on health that may be caused by the Poor ergonomic design of (VDU) workstations.

Work related upper limb disorders.
Eye strain.

86) Outline the main factors to be considered in an ergonomic assessment of a work station to be used by a VDU operator.

The task and the individual and their interrelationship..
The equipment and their interrelationship.
The environment and their interrelationship.

CONTROLLING WORKPLACE HAZARD.

87) In relation to cutting timber using a bench mounted circular saw.

 Outline the mechanical hazards to which an operator may be exposed.
Cutting hazards associated with the rotating with the blade but candidate might…
Also have referred to entanglement with the rotating parts (such as the spindle or parts of the transmission machinery).
Hazard created by flying particles.
Ejection of the wood being processed.

B) Identify the guards and protective devices designed to prevent with the saw blade, and in each case, explain how he /operator   is protected.
An adjustable or self adjusting guards for the top of the saw, exposing as little of the blade as possible.
Fixed guards over the parts of the blade below the bench and around the motor and drive mechanism.
Protection at the rear of the blade in the form of a riving knife.
Use of a push stick to keep operator hand away from the blade at the end of the cut.

C) Outline four non-mechanized hazards presented by the operation, identifying the possible health & Safety effects in each case.
Wood dust: Lung disorder, Nasal cancer.
Electricity: shock or burn.
Noise: noise induced hearing loss.
Hot surfaces: burn.

88) Outline the practical measures that might be taken to reduce the risk of violence to reduce the risk of violence to employees who deal with members of the public as part of their work.

 With many occupations exposed to the risk of violence from members of the public, particularly in the service industries, there was a wide range of practical measures that could have been outlined. Better answer looked at measures that encompassed the broad aspect of the environment, job factors, individual protection and general security. Only by addressing a wide range of issues, rather than concentrating on just physical security measures for instance, could high ,marks be obtained.

 The design of the public areas, in terms of d├ęcor, seating, the means of providing information (i.e. on waiting times) and the absence of obvious barriers, can help to reduce the build-up of confrontation and violent episodes. A balance must be drawn, however, between presenting a calm and ‘open’ environment and protecting staff from any violent incidents that could arise. Hence, there will often be need for wide counters, coded locks on doors, CCTV systems, panic buttons and alarm systems, whether these are made discrete or obvious will depend on the particularly those involving money may mean that the risk is too great to avoid the use of some sort of physical means of separation, such as security screens, between employees and the public.

 Many occupations, such as estate consultant/agents and social workers, involve interaction with the public outside work premises. In these cases, measures such as the avoidance of carrying large amount of cash, implementing appointment systems, Client risk assessment and accurate records, keeping may need to be considered. The risk of lone workers should give particular attention, with the need in certain circumstances to avoid lone working altogether and/or to implement regular checks-in procedures and to issue personal panic alarms.

In addition to designing the work place and the task to minimize the risk of violence assault, staff will need to be trained in the procedures and possibly in how they might recognize the early signs of aggressive behavior and avoid, defense or otherwise deal with a violent situations, in certain circumstances, the employment of security staff and the provision of PPE (e.g. bullet or stab proof vests, helmet etc).may be required.

In general, answers tended to be limited, sometimes because candidates seemed to have only one situation in mind, such that faced by health service workers. Others refereed in vague terms to measures such as the need for stringent security but without giving any details or examples of what this might mean.

 89) Outline the precautions to be taken when employees are working at ground level in a workshop where loads are lifted and transported by means of an overhead gantry crane.

The use, training and competence of key personnel (operator, signaler, slinger) are of utmost importance to general crane safety, as are the requirements for maintenance and statutory examinations of the crane and lifting tackles.
Warning of a lift taking place (audible and/or visual).
Exclusion zones.
Ensuring that the load is secure, does not exceed that safe working load, is lifted to the correct height and is moved at an appropriate speed.
Ensuring that all those working in the area have been properly trained and are adequately supervised.

90) Outline control measures needed to ensure safety during excavation work on a construction site.

Hazards:

Collapse of sides.
Fall of a persons.
Material or vehicles into the excavation.
Weakening of adjacent structures.
Contact with buried services or contaminated soil.
Build of fumes.
Ingress of water and contact with mechanical plant.

Control measures:

Shoring, benching etc (support of sides).
Detection of services (e.g. from plans, use of cable /pipe detectors etc).
Storage of materials, equipments and spoil away from edge.
Means of preventing vehicles falling into the excavation or causing collapse (i.e. stop, blocks).
Means of preventing peoples falling in (guard rails, barriers, crossing points and covers).
Means of preventing collapse of adjacent structures.
Sage means of access & egress.
Testing for, and ventilation of, noxious fumes.
Pumping out water facility.
Procedures for working with mechanical plant.
General issues such as ‘IT IS’ & use of PPE protection against contaminants).

91) In relation to occupational dermatitis,

A) Identify TWO causative agents
1) Acids

2) Alakalies

3) Detergents

4) Mineral Oil

5) Organic Solvent

6) Metal salts

7) Latex

8) Wet Cement.

B) Describe the typical symptoms of the condition.
Reddening of the skin.
Itchiness
Flaking
Cracking & bleeding with possible injection & ulceration.
C) Outline specific measures designed to prevent the occurrence of occupational dermatitis.
Change of process or a substitution of the material or substance being used.
A reduction in exposure.
Provision of the PPE (gloves, apron etc).
Use of barrier and after work creams.
Provision of adequate washing facilities.
‘IT IS’ on the causes & prevention of dermatitis.


92) Describe the physical features of traffic routes within a workplace designed to ensure the safe movement of vehicles.

Adequate width of a traffic routes with avoidance of blind corners.
Separation of vehicles & pedestrian with the provision of barriers & refuges.
One way system with turning circle to reduce the need for reversing.
Firm, even and well maintained round surface.
Roadways unobstructed and signed to indicate speed limits, rights of way & no entry.
Visibility aids such as mirrors, transparent screens across doorways & lighting.
Traffic calming measures such as road humps.
Marked pedestrian crossing points on vehicle routes.

93) In relation to a work place fire risk assessment, outline the issues that should be taken into account when assessing the means of escape.

Widths, travel distances.
Protection against smoke, fire, lighting.
Signage and
Specifications for doors (closers, direction of opening, glazing, etc).
Assessment should consider the provision and sitting of fire fighting equipment and the adequacy of assembly points.

94) Outline the precautions to be taken when repair work is to be carried out on the slopping roof of a building.

Assessment should be made to gauge the condition of the roof and to check for the presence of fragile materials and / or asbestos.
Means of access (e.g. scaffolding), the use of roof ladders, crawling boards and full arrest equipment, and edge protection to prevent the falls of persons and materials.
Provision for transporting tools and materials to the roof and for the removal of waste, barriers at ground level.
The use of appropriate PPE such as hard hats & footwear.
Employment of trained & competent personnel.

95 A) Identify TWO types of injury that may be caused by the incorrect manual handling.

Prolapsed or slipped discs.
Torn ligaments.
Muscular strains.
Cuts & abrasions.

Outline a good handling technique that could be adopted by a person required to lift a load from ground.
Placing the feet slightly apart & close to the load.
Bending at the knees.
Keeping the back straight ( or maintaining a natural curvature).
Maintaining a good grip.
Keeping the load close to the body without twisting and lifting smoothly using leg muscles.
Initial assessment of the load and lift prior to undertaking the task.


96) Outline the precautions to be taken to minimize the risks to the persons working in cold stores operating at sub-zero temperature.

Precautions against being locked in the cold store (e.g. doors capable of being opened from the inside and the installation of alarms).
Measures to protect the employees against the escape of refrigerant gas.
The need for pre-employment examinations & continuing health surveillance.
‘IT IS’ on the hazards associated with this type of work & precautions to be taken.
Provision of thermal clothing.
Restricting the time spent in the cold store with regular breaks.
Availability of warm drinks.


97) List the items that should be included on a checklist for the routine visual inspection of portable electrical appliances.

Need to check that the appliance is of a suitable type for the operations to be carried out.
Connecting plugs are in sound condition and sockets not overloaded.
Fuses fitted are of the correct ratting.
The appliance is operated at reduced voltage (where appropriate) and / or protected by a residual current device.
Cables are undamaged & routed safely.
Casing of the appliance is in good condition.
Need to check that a portable appliance test (PAT) has been carried out and is current, and that the relevant information is recorded.
Inventory of the types of electrical appliance that should be checked without listing the particular items that should be subject to a visual inspection.


MANAGEMENT OF HEALTH & SAFETY

98) Following a significant increase in accidents, a health and safety campaign is to be launched within an organization to encourage safe working by employees.

 Outline how the organization might ensure that the nature of the campaign is effectively communicated to, and understand by employees.
A variety of means (posters, emails, toolbox talks, training sessions etc). could be used to communicate and reinforce the message with account taken of the language used in order to facilitate understanding (avoidance of jargon, use of plan English etc).
Toolbox Talks, suggestion boxes, surveys and informal means of consultation can be used to involve employees and to provide a feedback loop to check that employees understand what the campaign is about and to assess the level of support.
Provide feedback to employees on how the campaign is progressing so that focus on the campaign’s objective is maintained.
Ensure that everybody within an organization knows the part that they are to play within a health & safely campaign.
Other than poor communication, describe the organizational factors that could limit the effectiveness of the campaign.
i) Lack of senior management commitment.
ii) Production or other pressures taking priority over health & Safety.
Insufficient resources allocated to the campaign.
Poor safety culture in general.
It should also have been recognized that poor working conditions are likely to induce cynicism towards the campaign amongst employees.
In addition, poor industrial relations or a lack of confidence in management’s ability could mean that the campaign is not given the support of influential members of staff.
Work patterns (e.g. shift work) could also mean that some sections of the workforce are not fully considered or supported, possibly due to the non-availability of the staff.

99) Outline the duties placed on employees by,

The Health & Safety at work etc Act 1974 (Section 7 & * – H SWA 1974)
Section 7 of the act requires employees to take reasonable care for themselves and others, who might be affected by their acts or omissions, and to cooperate with their employer or enable them to comply with their own statutory duties and requirements.

Section 8 requires that no one (including employees) shall intentionally or recklessly interfere with or misuse anything provided in the interests of health, safety or welfare.

B) (Reg 14 –MHSWR-1999) :
Requires employees to use all work items in accordance with the training and instructions that they have been given.
Requires employees to inform their employers (or a specified employee with health & safety responsibilities) of work situations that could present a serious and immediate danger, as well as any shortcomings that they might reasonably recognize in the existing arrangements for H & S.


100) Most occupational accidents can be attributed in part to human error. Outline ways of reducing the likelihood of human error in the workplace.

The use of skilled, competent and properly trained employees.
Ensuring that they are well motivated.
Avoiding monotonous work process and arranging breaks to counter fatigue.
Designating clear roles & lines of responsibilities.
Ensuring adequate level of supervision.
Establishing good lines of communication with the workforce.
Ensuring the clarity of instructions and information passed on to them.
Addressing workplace environmental issues such as noise, light and heat.
Designating the workplace & work equipment to reduce the opportunity for error ( e.g. automation, unambiguous and clearly marked controls, monitoring & confirmation of actions & feed back loops.
Implementing policies an alcohol & drugs.

NEBOSH IGC Question and Answers PART 6 Cont......

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