Heat Stress and High Humidity Hazards on workplace

Understanding humidity and taking the necessary precautions can help prevent the risk of your body overheating and experiencing heat-related illnesses. A humidity inex is used as a measure of perceived heat that results from the combined effect of excessive humidity (moisture in the air) and high temperature. The body attempts to maintain a constant internal temperature of 37° at all times and in hot weather sweat is produced, which cools the body when it evaporates. As the humidity in the air increases, sweat does not evaporate as readily, and stops entirely when the relative humidity reaches about 90%. Under these circumstances, the body temperature rises and may cause illness.

The development of heat related illnesses depends on many factors in addition to air temperature and humidity. Wind speed or air movement, work load, radiant heat sources, and a person’s physical condition are important.
List of Hazards on Heat Stress:
Heat Rash:
Heat rash, or prickly heat, occurs when blocked sweat glands become inflamed. This painful rash reduces the body’s ability to sweat and to tolerate heat.

Heat cramps
Heat cramps are painful spasms of the muscles. The muscles used in doing the work are most susceptible. The spasms are caused by the failure of the body to replace its lost body salts and usually occur after heavy sweating.

Heat exhaustion
Heat exhaustion results when the body loses large amounts of fluid by sweating during work in hot environments. The skin becomes cool and clammy. Symptoms include profuse sweating, weakness, dizziness, nausea, and headaches.

Heat Stroke
Heat stroke is the most serious condition and requires immediate attention; the body temperature becomes very high (even exceeding 41°C). Complete or partial loss of consciousness is possible. Sweating is not a good warning sign of heat stress as there are two types of heat stroke:

“classical” where there is little or no sweating (usually occurs in children, persons who are chronically ill, and the elderly), and

“exertional” where body temperature rises because of strenuous exercise or work and sweating is usually present.

Precaution to be consider on summer season:

  • Monitor environmental conditions and allow self-limiting of exposure when necessary. If this is not possible, adjust work/rest cycles accordingly.

  • Avoid sun exposure. Take frequent breaks in a cool or well-ventilated area to get out of the sun and heat.

  • Don’t be afraid to sweat. Sweating is the body’s most effective cooling mechanism.

  • Take time to acclimatize to new working conditions and temperatures.

  • Stay hydrated. Drink plenty of water in hot weather conditions, on average, one litre every hour.

  • If possible, postpone strenuous work to a cooler time of day.

  • Wear light clothing.

  • Consider the use of cooling vests.

Workers should be trained to recognize the signs and symptoms of heat stress and how to avoid them. An emergency action plan which includes procedures for providing affected workers with first aid and medical care should be in place.

NEBOSH IGC Question and Answers PART 7

NEBOSH IGC Question and Answers PART 6  Cont....

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121) General Risk Assessment – Key Stages –Outline

Define the task & identify both the hazards associated with the task & the clauses of persons at risk of harm.
Evaluate the risk arising from the hazards ( to assess the effectiveness of existing precautions and to decide whether additional measures are required to eliminate or control the risks.
Records of the findings.
Time scale- set for their review & revision.

122) Induction Training (new employees) Main H & S issues –Outline.

Health & Safety Policy of organization.
Emergency procedures.
Hazards specific to work place,
Need to comply with H & S requirements, H & S responsibilities & line of communication.
Accidents & first aid arrangements.
Welfare provision.
Health & surveillance.
Consultation procedure.

123) Safe system of work –Explain

‘Integration of people, equipment, material & the environment to produce an acceptable level of safety. (Procedure, hazards, control, equipment, PPE & Training).

 124) Developing safe system of work. Sources- outline.

Approved code of practices.
Manufacturer’s information.
Standards- British, European, international & Industry.
Contacts- enforcement agencies & professional bodies.
In house standards.
Result of risk assessment & JSA.
Accident, Health surveillance data.

125) Contractors – Assessment of H & S competence –list factors.

Previous experience.
HSE Policy.
H & S Responsibility.
Accident enforcement & history.
Membership with accreditation body & ISO Certification.
Statutory examination of equipment.
Methods of statements – Procedure.

126) Forklift driver – Injured

Cornering too fast.
Hitting obstructions.
Driving on uneven ground / across slope.
Moving with the load elevated, unstable or excessive.
Colliding with another vehicle.
Condition of work equipment & workplace.
Ineffective brakes.
Tire in poor condition, inflated & mechanical failure.
Human factor issues.

Underlying factors – Describe.
A poor or complete lack of risk assessment.
Poor selection of vehicle.
Inadequate driver training.
A failure to develop safe system of work.
Poor employee selection procedure.
A lack of supervision.
A poor maintenance procedure.
Failure to introduce a system for reporting defects.
General lack of commitment to H & S on the part of management.

127) Propaganda Posters – Advantage Outline

Vehicles for passing on H & S message to workforce.

Relatively low cost.
Use in reinforcing verbal instructions or information.
Potential to involve employees in their selection or design. (Employee involvement).
Humor can sometimes be used effectively to convey a serious message.

Need to change posters on regular basis if they are to be noticed.
They may become soiled.
Defaced and out of date.
They might trivialize serious matters or present language barriers.
Over reliance on posters to convey H & S information.
They may be perceived by unscrupulous employees as an easy, if not particularly effective; way of discharge their H & S duties 7 of shifting the responsibility into the workforce for any accidents that may occur.

128) H & S Inspector. May serve –Explain.

i) An Improvement Notice:
There is a breach of relevant statutory provisions, or that there has been a breach that is likely to be continued or repeated.

e.g. Floor that has been poorly maintained in contravention of the requirements of the workplace (HSWR-1992).

ii) A Prohibition Notice:
An inspector must be of the opinion that there is, or is likely to be, a risk of serious personal injury.

E.g. Scaffold that has been poorly constructed and is therefore in an unsafe condition.

iii) Enforcement Notice, Effect : State

Improvement Notice: to suspend the notice until the appeal is held.

Prohibition Notice: Continuous in force until the appeal is heard.

129) Young persons at a greater risk of accidents at work. (factors that may place – Identify.

Lack of knowledge, experience or training.
2) Individual’s physical development.

3) Tendency of young persons to take risks and to respond to peer group pressure.

130) Minimize the risks to young persons. Measures –Outline.

Competition of risk assessments with young persons specifically in mind.
The provision of Induction program’s.
Careful supervision or monitoring by an experienced & responsible fellow worker.
Specific health surveillance.
Clear line of communication.
Restrictions on the type of work & the number of hours worked.

131) Civil law & Criminal law – Difference –Outline.

One to provide a remedy and the other to punish.
Courts involved Civil magistrates courts civil the county courts etc.
The burden of the proof required ( a balance of probabilities as opposed to beyond all reasonable doubts).
The parties generally involved the state and an individual and the different court structures involved.
Difference in the sources of law, with criminal law generally written down in, statutes and with civil liabilities largely defined in common law by judicial precedent.

132) H & S Committee – Establish by employer. (Circumstances – State)

An employer must establish a H & S committee when requested to do so in writing by two or more trade union appointed safety representative within 3 months.
H & S Committee –Ineffective (6 –reasons)- Give
Lack of management commitment.
No agenda or remit and / or no minutes or notes of the meetings being produced.
An uneven balance between management & employee representative.
Poor chairmanship.
No access to the decision making process.
Infrequent meetings.
In appropriate topics.
No access to H & S expertise.

133) Reference to RIDDOR

A) State the legal requirement.
Notify the enforcing authority by the quickest practicable means.
Written report regarding death formally within 10 days by an approved means
The responsible person under the regulations has the duty to submit the report and that delayed deaths, up to 1 year after the original accident have to be reported whether or not they have been previously reported under another category.
B) Work related injuries (other than fatal injuries) – 3 categories – Reportable.
Injured person being away from the work; or unable to do normal work for > 3 consecutive days.
Injuries to non-employees who are taken to hospital for treatment etc.

134) H & S Regulations & ACOP (Outline with example).

H & S Regulations:

Generally made under the H & SWA -1974 by secretary of state.
Contain statutory requirements which, if not the imposition of a fine or to the issue of an enforcement notice by the appropriated met by the person on whom they are laid.
May lead to prosecution in the courts & enforcement authority.

Approved by the H & S Commission with the consent of the secretary of state.
They provide a practical interpretation of legal requirements in specific areas.
They do not themselves impose any legal requirements they may be produced in the court as supportive evidence.

135)     A) Ergonomics – Define

‘The study of the interaction between workers & the work environment’ OR ‘Making the job or task fit to the person”.

B) Inspection of a machine operation which is not ergonomically designed (Observation List).
The need for excessive force or repetitive movements by the operator.
2) The need for the operator to stretch or stoop.

3) Machine control sited in awkward positions.

4) Controls and displays unmarked or poorly marked and their function not obvious.

5) Luck of visibility of the task by the operator.

6) The work piece difficult to position because of its size/ weight / type of protection provided.

7) Difficulty experience in changing, adjusting or cleaning the machine tools.

 136) State shape & colours with example.

Prohibition Signs: White background within a red circle and with a diagonal red line. E.g. “No Smoking”.
Warning Sign: Yellow background within a black triangle. E.g. Flammable material, radiation & electricity.
Mandatory sign: Round signs with blue background used to designate compulsory use. E.g. Hearing / head protection / fire door close.
Emergency exit or first aid: Rectangular or square with a green background. E.g. Emergency escape sign (Running Man).

137) Monitoring of H & S performance (* measures – Identify.)

Rates of incidents, injuries & work related ill-health.
Action taken by enforcement authorities.
The number of Civil claims.
The result of inspections & environmental monitoring.
Safety audits outcomes.
The degree of compliance with procedures ( PPE usage).
of staff trained in H & S.
Result of medical and / or health surveillance.


138) A) with reference to methods of heat transfer explain how fire in workplace may spread.

Conduction: Heat can be transferred through metal beam or other parts of a structure by conduction.
Convection: Heat can be carried by rising air currents (convection) to cause a build-up of hot gases under ceiling.
Radiation: Heat can be transferred through the air by radiation causing heating of a material at a distance from fire.
Direct burning: Combustible material in direct contact with flames can itself catch fire.

B) Outline the measures that should be taken to minimize the risk of fire from electrical equipment.
Ensuring suitability of the chosen equipment for the task. (Std CE Marking, Intrinsic flameproof equipment).
Circuit overloads prevention. (Avoid multi way adopter in single socket).
The use of correctly rated fuses & thermal cut-outs.
Isolating equipment when not in use.
Ensuring that vents remain uncovered.
Uncoiling cables & extension leads.
Pre-use inspection of equipment for visible damage plugs, connectors to cables.
Program of ‘IT IS’ by competent person.

Explain why water should not be used on fires involving electrical equipment & identify two suitable extinguishing agents that could be used in such circumstances.
Water is a good conductor of electricity, it leads to electric shock.

Dry chemical powder fire extinguisher.
Carbon dioxide fire extinguisher.

139) Outline the issues to consider when considering Manual handling assessment of task that involves lifting bucket of water out of a sink.

Main elements: Task, Individual, Load, & Environment.

Frequency of activity.
Vertical & horizontal distances to be lifted / transported.
Distance of the load from the body.
Awkward body movements & soon.
Environmental factors- wet floor, space constraints & ambient temperature.
Load- weight, the type / size of the bucket & water temperature.
Individual – should be considered in terms of age, gender, stature & physical capability.

140) A) Outline the possible causes of a dumper truck overturn on a construction site.

Overloading or uneven loading of the bucket.
Cornering at excessive speed.
Hitting obstructions.
Driving to close to the edge of embankments or excavations.
Mechanical defects.
Inappropriate tire pressures and driving across slopes.

NEBOSH IGC Question and Answers PART 8 Cont...

How to control static electricity in Oil and gas

Bonding and grounding
Prevention There are a number of process improvements that can be put in place to help prevent the likelihood of a fire or explosion caused by static electricity. Reducing the flow rate of liquid is one technique because static electricity increases as the flow of flammables increase. An effective way to do this is by slowing processes down. “Reduce the amount of speed that’s happening when you’re filling, when transferring flammables. Obviously there are operational and economic constraints — no one wants to dribble material from one thing to another — but people need to make that trade-off on their own,”. Slowing processes down also reduces the amount of splashing of the flammable liquid. This is important because static electricity increases as the liquid’s surface area of contact increases. “You can image water splashing in a container; it comes out as a stream and as it hits the bottom, it spreads out across all the surface area that’s given at the bottom of that container, so now you have more surface area contact for the flammable and more electrons are able to transfer,”. Bottom filling a container through a long dip pipe is a generally accepted practice for reducing the amount of splashing. Agitating the liquid less is another useful technique. “You’re going to eliminate some liquid so it won’t be agitated as much or move it without agitating it as much and building up the static electricity,”. Humidity control is another method for reducing the generation of static electricity. A relative humidity of about 50 per cent is sufficient to avoid difficulties with static electricity, according to the National Fire Protection Association. “The less moisture there is in the air, the more static charge can build up because the charge cannot leak off with a lack of moisture, so atmospheric conditions do play a role,”.
Good installation practices to safely discharge static electricity involve bonding and then grounding the conductive equipment that produces static electricity.
 Image result for bonding and grounding      
Bonding means permanently or temporarily joining all metal parts together. This helps keep the bonded objects at the same level of potential energy, eliminating the risk of static sparks between them.
Grounding means establishing a conductive path between a bonded object and the earth. The conductive path to the earth discharges the built-up static electricity to ground.

Static Electricity Hazard in Oil and Gas

Static electricity is the electric charge generated when there is friction between two things made of different materials or substances. When in contact, the surface electrical charges of the objects try to balance each other through the free flow of electrons. When separated, they are left with either an excess or shortage of electrons causing both objects to become electrically charged.
Worksite static electricity and FR Coveralls walk hand in handImage result for static electricity
If these charges don’t have a path to the ground, they become “static” and if the static electricity is not eliminated, the charge will build up and jump as a spark to a grounded or less highly charged object. If this spark occurs in an ignitable vapour or dust mixture, the result could be a fire or explosion.
Electric charges can build up on an object or liquid when certain liquids (e.g., petroleum solvents, fuels) move in contact with other materials. This can occur when liquids are poured, pumped, filtered, agitated, stirred or flow through pipes. This buildup of electrical charge is called static electricity. Even when liquids are transported or handled in non-conductive containers, something rubbing the outside surface of the container may cause a static charge to build up in the liquid. The amount of charge that develops depends, in part, on how much liquid is involved and how fast is it flowing or is being agitated or stirred.
Causes of Static Electricity in Oil and Gas Industry:
 Propane gas cylinder processing facilities: The propane present in the air can be ignited by static electricity.
• Frack tanks: Static charges can build up and ignite residual oil and trapped gases in the tank. Static electricity can be generated when dissimilar molecules such as water, oil and sediment in the flow back fluid collide and form positive and negative charges.
• Fueling operations: The flowing movement of flammable liquids like gasoline inside a pipe can build up static electricity. Liquids such as paraffin, gasoline, toluene, xylene, diesel, kerosene and light crude oils exhibit significant ability for charge accumulation and charge retention during high velocity flow.
• Natural gas pipelines: Friction caused by dust or constrictions in the pipe can cause static buildup on pipes used to transport natural gas. If there is a negative charge inside the pipe, it will attract an opposite equal charge through the soil and to the outside of the pipe. When the pipe is uncovered, the charge outside the pipe can arc.

Difference between Automatic and Manual Fire protection system

Automatic fire System:
Automatic fire suppression systems control and extinguish fires without human intervention. Examples of automatic systems include fire sprinkler system, gaseous fire suppression, and condensed aerosol fire suppression.

They are two types :
Engineered Fire Suppression Systems are design specific. Engineered systems are usually for larger installations where the system is designed for the particular application. Examples include marine and land vehicle applications, computer clean rooms, public and private buildings, industrial paint lines, dip tanks and electrical switch rooms. 

Pre-Engineered Fire Suppression Systems use pre-designed elements to eliminate the need for engineering work beyond the original product design. Typical industrial solutions use a simple wet or dry chemical agent, such as potassium carbonate or mono ammonium phosphate (MAP), to protect spaces such as paint rooms and booths, storage areas and commercial kitchens
Manual fire system:
Manual fire suppression systems control and extinguish fires with human intervention.
 Examples Fire extinguisher,Fire Blanket,Hose Reel,Call Point

NEBOSH IGC Question and Answers PART 6

NEBOSH IGC Question and Answers PART 5 Cont.....
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101) Outline the main features of,

A health & Safety inspections of a workplace,
Safety Inspection: Involves the straight forward observation of a workplace and/or the activities or equipment within it. Generally safety inspection, usually carried out by a manager or employees representative and often aided by the use of the checklist, may be carried out routinely and has the aim of identifying hazards and assessing the use and effectiveness of control measures ( Area to be covered -4p’s –Plant, people, procedures, plant & equipment).

A Health & Safety Audit:
Audit is a thorough, critical examination of an organization’s safety management systems & procedures. Audit is normally a lengthy process carried out by a trained auditor, often someone from outside the organization. It is a structured way of assessing the health & safety performance of a organization by supplying answers to a serious preset questions, and often involves a scoring system such that improvements can be measured.

102) An employer is claiming compensation for injuries received during an accident involving a forklift trucks.

Identifying the documented information that the employer might draw together when preparing a possible defense against the claim.

Accident book record.
RIDDOR form (if applicable).
Accident investigation report, including statements made by witness or supervisors in terms of demonstrating compliance with statutory & common law duties.
Relevant documents might include:
The organization’s H&S Policy.
Risk Assessment.
Written safe systems of work relating to the activity.
Training records.
Statutory examination records ( as required by LOLER).
Maintenance records (PUWER & LOLER).
Inspection reports.
Health & safety Committee Minutes.
Documents relating to previous accidents & corrective actions taken.
Information relating to the claimant (e.g. involvement in previous accidents disciplinary records etc.

103) With reference to the (health & safety consultation with employees) Regulations 1996:

Identify the particular health & safety matters on which employees must consult their employees.
1) The introduction of measures affecting the health & safety of employees.

2) The arrangements for the appointing or nominating competent persons under regulations 7 & 8 of the MHSWR- 1999.

3) Health & Safety information required by law to be provided to employees.

4) The planning and organizing of any health & Safety training that has to be provided.

5) Consequences of the introduction of new technology.

Outline the entitlements of representatives of employees safety who have been elected under the regulations.
Provision of reasonable facilities and assistance.
Provision of training (with coverage of associated costs).
Being given time off with pay during working hours to undertake training and to carryout the stated functions.
Provision of information necessary to carryout the functions ( including specifically access to records kept under the requirements of the Reporting of Injuries, Diseases & Dangerous Occurrences Regulations 1995).

104) Outline reasons for maintaining good standards of health & safety within an organization.

Moral: Need to provide a reasonable standard of care and to reduce the injuries, pain and suffering caused to employees by accidents & ill health.
Legal: concerned with the desire to avoid enforcement action and civil claims.
Economic: Economic benefits include, a more motivated workforce resulting in increased production rates. The avoidance of direct costs associated with accidents (e.g. down time, administrative, investigation and first aid costs, repair of plants & equipment, employing & training replacement staff, etc.) possibly cheaper insurance premiums. The avoidance of costs associated with legal action and maintaining the image and reputation of the organization with its various stack holders.

105) A) The meaning of the term ‘Permit to Work’.

‘A formal documented procedure to control hazards in high risk activities’.

B) Outline the specific details that should be included in a permit to work for entry into a confined space.
1) A description of the plant involved with reference to the task to be completed and forcible hazards and risks.

2) The precautions to be taken (e.g. isolating services, atmosphere purging 7 the removal of contaminants, pre-entry and ongoing atmospheric testing, means of communication, use of respiratory and PPE etc.).

3) Emergency arrangements & equipment to be provided (e.g. safety lines, supporting staff, resuscitation and other first aid equipment, welfare facilities etc).

4) Duration of the permit & signatures for authorization and receipt and for hand back & cancellation.

106) A controller has been engaged to undertake building maintenance work in a busy warehouse. Outline the issues that should be covered in an induction program for the contractor’s employees.

The particular risks in the working area ( e.g movement of forklift trucks, falling materials, conveyers & the possible presence of asbestos).
General site safety rules regarding smoking, clothing & PPE.
Use of electrical equipment and so on.
Requirements for permit to work and other control.
Exclusion zones & traffic routes.
Arrangements for the storage of materials.
Accident reporting & other emerging procedures (e.g. action required in case of fire).
viii) The location & use of welfare facilities including first-aid.

 107) A) Outline Three work activities that may present a particular risk to pregnant women.

Manual handling or physically strenuous work.
Task involving long periods of standing or sitting.
Work involving exposure to the biological agents or chemical substances that might affect unborn child.
Work in hyperbaric environment (e.g. those above normal atmospheric pressure).
Tasks involving exposure to ionizing radiation.
Unusually stressful work including exposure to high levels of noise and hot environment.
Jobs that expose peoples to an increased risks of injury ( e.g. due to slipping or violent assault). Have particular implications for pregnant women.
Activity of radiographers exposed to X rays (standing). (swelling of feet-edema, varicose veins, dizziness & fainting).
Sitting for long time – thrombosis, embolism).

B) Outline the actions that an employer may take when a risk to a new or expectant mother cannot be avoided.
(Reg -16 of MHSWR-1999).

Changing the employees working conditions (e.g. finding other suitable work or introducing additional breaks) or
Changing the hours of work, if not,
The employer would need to consider suspending the employee from work on full pay for as long as is necessary.

108) List the powers given to H & S enforcement officers appointed under the HSWA-1974.

Powers of Inspector’s , Section 20 – HSWA -1974 with Section 21, 22, 25, 39.

The right to enter premises, if necessary by enlisting the assistance of a police officers.
Carryout examinations & investigations.
The direct that premises or equipment be left undisturbed for the purpose of investigations.
To take measurements & photographs.
To inspect and / or take copies of documents and records.
To take samples.
To require a person to answer questions and signs a declaration to the truth of his/her answers.
To take possessions of articles and substances (and to seize and render them harmless in situations of imminent danger).
To issue enforcement notices.

109) Human Error- Workplace (Reducing ways)

Use of skilled, trained & competent staff including pre-employment screening issues.
Motivation of workforce.
Task variety to prevent monotony.
Frequent breaks.
Addressing environment issues-heat, light & noise.
Mechanization & automation.
Ensuring controls on machinery are clearly marked.
Implementation of drugs & alcohol policy.
Providing competent supervision of employees.

110) Hazard underestimation – reasons

1) Overfamilarity & complacency.

2) Lack of instructions.

3) Information of training.

4) Lack of experience.

5) Some hazards may be invisible.

6) Sensory impairment.

7) Involvement in routine.

8) Repetitive task that may lead to lack of attention.

111) Motivation – Ways Outline

1) The Overt recognition of good health & safety performance. ( Praise / offering financial incentives).

2) Disciplining employees.

3) Involvement of employees: a) Risk assessment b) safe system of work.

4) Improving companies H & S culture & demonstrating a high level of management commitment.

5) Ensuring a good working environment.

6) Providing training.

7) Ensuring good communication.

112) Pregnant employees (Factors affecting –Outline).

1) Exposure to chemical e.g. pesticides, lead that causes intra cellular changes (mutagens) or affect the embryo (teratogens).

2) Biological exposures e.g. Hepatitis.

3) Physical agents exposures e.g. Ionizing radiations, extra temperature issues.

4) Ergonomic issues – manual handling, prolonged standing, adoption of awkward body, movements –stress.

5) PPE issues.

113) Smoking policy – Benefits –Explain.

1) Reduction in the risk of fire.

2) Improvement in general cleanliness.

3) Reduction in smoking exposure to non-smoking staff (irritant effect) long term health damage.

4) Promotion of health.

5) Avoidance of conflict between smokers & non-smokers.

114) No smoking policy – Ways outline

1) Policy should be clear in its intents & communicated to all staff ( notice boards, leaflets & forms of propaganda)

2) Consultation with employees to encourage ownership.

3) Setting an example by management people.

4) Providing help to employees in the form of counseling.

5) Provision of designated smoking area.

6) Use of disciplinary procedure.

7) Providing smoke free environment.

 115) Monitoring & reviews of safety performance by Management – Why reasons Outline.

To identify substandard health & safety practical & conditions (workplace inspection).
To identify trends in relation to different types of incidents (analysis of incident data).
Benchmark- by comparing data with similar industries, to identify measures are in use & to assess their effectiveness.
To be able to make decisions on appropriate remedial measures for any deficiencies identified.
To set priorities & establish realistic timescale.
To assess compliance with legal requirements MHSWR-1999.
To provide information to board of director & safety committee.

116) Reporting of fatality to enforce authority, state legal requirements.

‘Notify the enforcement authority by the quickest practicable means then to report the death within 10 days by an approved means – F 2508.

117) Work related injuries- reportable outline

Major injury
Fracture of bone.
24 hrs. Hospitalization.
Injured person away from work. ( > 3 day consecutive).
Injury to non-employees taken to hospital for treatment.

118) First aid arrangements – factors outline.

1) No. of trained first aid personnel.

2) First aid facilities – size of organization.

3) Distribution & composition of workforce.

4) The types of hazard & level of risk present.

5) The proximity to emergency services.

6) The special need of traveling.

7) Remote or lone workers.

8) Arrangement for other shifts, sickness leave & other absence.

119) Civil Law & Criminal law , Difference outline.

One to provide a remedy & other to punish.
A burden of proof required. ( a balance of probabilities as opposed to beyond all reasonable doubts.
The practices generally involved ( two individual rather than state & individual).
Different court structure.

120) Risk – Explain (example)

‘Probability / Likelihood of an occurrence & the severity of its consequences.

NEBOSH IGC Question and Answers PART 7 Cont.....

Oxidizing and Corrosive hazards in Acid/Base

The corrosivity of a material, that is, the ability for a chemical to cause visible destruction to skin and other tissues is an important parameter in emergency response. The acids are well known for their ability to corrode. A splash of acid on the skin may cause a severe burn and scarring. Though highly dangerous, these materials are used in many industrial processes on a huge scale, and are found in just about every household (for example, cleaners). What makes a material acidic (or basic)? What are the common approaches to dealing with these chemicals in a spill scenario?
Recall from your early chemistry: Acidic materials dissolve in water to produce a net surplus of hydrogen ions [H+]; ions being electrically charged chemicals in water. Basic materials also dissolve in water and produce hydroxyl ions [OH-]. It is the concentration of these ions which determines the strength of an acid or a base. Strong acids produce higher concentrations of H+ than weak acids (similarly for bases). We can generalize and say that: most common acids have a high solubility in water i.e. you can put them in water, dissolve them and generate ions in solution; a few highly concentrated acids can be flammable and others may be sufficiently oxidizing to ignite combustible materials; acids react with metals, sometimes slowly, to produce flammable and explosive hydrogen gas; acids neutralize bases, in other words, hydrogen ions react with hydroxyl ions to produce water and resultant heat.

pH scale
Acid regionNeutral pHBasic region
Solutions with pH between 0 and 6 are acid, pH 7 is neutral and pH 8-14 solutions are basic. pH readings may be taken using litmus paper and observing the colour change. The pH scale as shown is a logarithmic scale, that is factors of 10 separate each value. For example, a 1 litre spill of a strong acid (pH=1) would require 10,000 litres of water to be diluted to pH=5. Dilution to neutral pH would require 1,000,000 litres of water (although this wouldn't be necessary as pH=5 would represent a low hazard for skin contact). Addition of water has the added drawback of spreading the spill around.

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